Spacetime heading Image
Spacetime is a TRL 9 product validated with greater than 2 million hours of lights-out orchestration of aerospace nodes. Designed to operate networks that include dynamic physical link topologies and highly-directional steerable beams across land, sea, air, and space.
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CONTRACTED BY
Defense Innovation Unit
DISA
US Air Force
Air Force Research Lab
US Space Force
Space Warfighting Analysis Center
SOCOM
Rivada
Intelsat
Telesat
ESA
Defense Innovation Unit
DISA
US Air Force
Air Force Research Lab
US Space Force
Space Warfighting Analysis Center
SOCOM
Rivada
Intelsat
Telesat
ESA
Defense Innovation Unit
DISA
US Air Force
Air Force Research Lab
US Navy
NRL
US Space Force
Space Warfighting Analysis Center
SOCOM
Rivada
Intelsat
Telesat
ESA

Planetary Scale Digital Twin


Built on a digital twin of wireless transceivers and signal propagation at planet-scale, Spacetime has a full celestial frame of reference. It can understand the physics of the Earth and space, as well as motion propagation, weather phenomena and atmospheric characteristics: everything that affects a wireless signal. It also uses the position, orientation and projected motion of the physical platforms to forecast the quality and stability of upcoming connection opportunities, enabling it to proactively evolve the network topology and increase network resilience.

Spacetime software on a screen
Spacetime software on a screen

Our Story

2013

Google initiates several projects to connect the unconnected using LEO satellite constellations, HAPS, and UAVs.

2014

Google begins work on “Minkowski”, a software platform for Temporospatial Software Defined Networking (TS-SDN), in order to support the network control and orchestration of LEO satellite constellations, HAPS, and other dynamic mesh networks.

2015 - 2021

TS-SDN deployed at scale; performs lights-out orchestration of the ground stations and communications payloads in Loon’s stratospheric mesh network

2016

First successful test of TS-SDN with an airborne communications payload

2019

TS-SDN achieves 1 million flight hours

2021

TS-SDN achieves 2 million flight hours

March 2022

Aalyria is formed; acquires TS-SDN technology (Spacetime) from Google

July 2022

Initial contract for Hybrid Space Architecture

September 2022

Spacetime achieves General Availability on Google Cloud for SaaS or self-hosting

March 2023

Spacetime is selected to orchestrate Rivada Space Networks LEO constellation

September 2023

Aalyria signs deal with Intelsat to advance multi-orbit connectivity

November 2023

Telesat selects Spacetime for orchestration of its revolutionary Telesat Lightspeed Constellation

December 2023

Spacetime to develop ESA's O-RAN platform for 5G/6G NTN connectivity

The Network Fabric of Spacetime

Spacetime blends traditional SDN / SD-WAN features for the enterprise network and ground segment with control plane orchestration of wireless networks and directional or steerable beams. This novel approach, called Temporospatial Software-Defined Networking (TS-SDN), augments the network information base with a digital twin capable of modeling the position, orientation, and motion of any physical platforms and forecasting the opportunities for wireless links and coverage opportunities over time. Leveraging predictability in motion, weather, and faster-than-realtime modeling allows Spacetime to jointly optimize and solve the steerable beam tasking and scheduling, radio and optical transceiver resource management, and path-agnostic route orchestration across time and space, in all domains.

Screenshot of the Spacetime application showing both network topology and physical topology

Open APIs

Spacetime’s open Northbound APIs can be used to dynamically express network requirements, such as a new request to provision resilient, end-to-end network transit at a specified priority and data rate. The endpoints for such requests can be expressed referencing the true source and destination of those flows, including any combination of enterprise services, cloud resources, coverage regions, or network interfaces across land, sea, air, or space. Spacetime optimizes and orchestrates the network control plane accordingly by continuously installing, revising, and monitoring the scheduled enactment of network state transitions and telemetry across the network through its open Controller-to-Dataplane Interface APIs. All of Spacetime’s APIs are based on gRPC, are available on Github as open source, and are provided to government customers with unlimited rights.

Screenshot of Github API page

Digital Twin

Spacetime’s digital twin predicts wireless access, backhaul, and ISL opportunities with full consideration of near-term motion, including but not limited to aircraft bank angles, field-of-regard obstructions, ground station horizon masks, terrain, and sun outages. This enables a proactive make-before-break network flow on an end-to-end network path basis, while proactively considering wireless link capacities, interference, and detectability. NOAA weather nowcasts/forecasts are integrated into its wireless signal propagation modeling supporting proactive orchestration around atmospheric, rain, clouds, fog, and scintillation for any RF frequency up to 100 GHz as well as atmospheric free space optics.

3D model of plane with link budget graph

Multi-Domain

Spacetime’s multi-domain, temporospatial digital twin supports land, sea, air, and space – including terrestrial terminals and handsets, ground stations, ships, aircraft, HAPS, LEO, MEO, and GEO satellite constellations, cislunar, and deep space network nodes. New physical topologies are proactively created, and routes are then migrated across all domains to ensure that existing network flows experience zero packet loss. This enables it to reoptimize the network, across all domains, within seconds in response to unpredictable events, such as the loss of a satellite, a cut to a submarine fiber, or a new request for a high priority network transit.

FEDERATION

Spacetime’s Federation API addresses the growing need to allow peer networks to request and to supply network resources and interconnections between partners’ networks. This results in far greater network resilience and cost effectiveness than can be achieved by any one network alone; the increased coordination facilitates dynamic, real-time inter-network connections, which allows operators to automatically and quickly supplement gaps in network coverage or advertise unused capacity to make full use of underutilized assets. Spacetime, acting as an SDN controller, exposes and utilizes the Federation API between partners’ networks, providing full federation orchestration capabilities. This is particularly powerful given Spacetime’s ability to bridge multiple domains, enabling it to orchestrate meshes across different networks in land, sea, air, and space.

NetOps Application

Spacetime’s interface provides situational awareness across the geospatial and logical representations of an all-domain network. Users can:

  • Take actions such as requesting services, draining traffic from the network, and other operational scenarios
  • View and replay historical context and state transitions to diagnose outages
  • View and replay future context for analysis